Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Hedging is a kind of language use which ‘protects’ your claims.

Using language with a amount that is suitable of can protect your claims from being easily dismissed. It also helps to indicate the amount of certainty we now have in terms of the data or support.

Compare the following two texts that are short (A) and (B). You will see that even though the two texts are, in essence, saying the same thing, (B) has a significant quantity of extra language across the claim. A large number of this language is performing the function of ‘hedging’.

Compare the next two short texts, (A) and (B). Exactly how many differences do you really see into the second text? What is the function/effect/purpose of every difference?

You will probably realize that (B) is more ‘academic’, but it is important to comprehend why.

(A) Extensive reading helps students to improve their vocabulary.

(B) Research conducted by Yen (2005) generally seems to indicate that, for a substantial proportion of students, extensive reading may contribute to a noticable difference inside their active vocabulary. Yen’s (2005) study involved learners aged 15-16 in the UK, even though it may be applicable to other groups. However, the study involved an opt-in sample, meaning that the sample students might have been more ‘keen’, or more involved with reading already. It would be useful to see perhaps the findings differ in a wider sample.

(Please note that Yen (2005) is a fictional reference used only for instance).

The table below provides some situations of language to make use of when knowledge that is making.

Try to find examples of hedging language in your own reading, to add to the table.

Phrases for Hedging

Language Function with Example Phrases

1) Quantifiers

a fraction
a minority/majority of
a proportion of
to some degree

2) Appearance

appears to
has the appearance of
is similar to
shares characteristics with
appears to stay in line with

3) Possibility

has the possibility of
has the potential to
is in a position to

4) Frequency

tends to
has a tendency to

5) Comparatively

in a less complicated way than .
more simply than …
When compared to …

Within the context of …
…in certain situations…
Within some households…

7) Ev >Based on …
As indicated by …
According to …

8) Description in language

can be described as
could be thought to be
is sometimes labelled
can be equated to
the term is frequently used to mean
the term is normally used to mention to
this may indicate that …
this may claim that …

Language categories compiled and devised by Jane Blackwell

IOE Centre that is writing Online

Self-access resources through the Academic Writing Centre at the UCL Institute of Education.

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Academic Writing Centre, UCL Institute of Education

Essays often sound tough, but they are the way that is easiest to publish an extended answer.
In this lesson, we will have a look at how exactly to write one.


Start your answer, and list what you will be currently talking about

Write about the ideas that may answer your question


Re-write exactly what your ideas are and say why you have answered them

Arguments, Keywords and Definitions

Before we start dealing with how an essay works, we need to go through three terms that individuals will use to describe what you do for essay writing structure.
Argument = every one of the main points you are going to talk about in your essay.
Keywords = words that are important components of the question
Definition = A one-sentence summary of the essay that is whole which write in your introduction.
We will go through a few examples in a minute.

Basic Introduction

To publish your introduction, follow these steps. All these steps means you start a sentence that is new.

  • Rewrite the question using keywords, are the name of text(s) and s that are author(
  • Write a single sentence answer (definition)
  • List all of the main points of the argument

Illustration of an Introduction

Are pigs in a position to fly? (Question)
Pigs are not able to fly. (Re-write of top essay writer question)
they are unable to fly because their bodies don’t allow them to. (Definition)
they have been too heavy to float, they don’t have wings or propellers, in addition they cannot control aircraft. (Main Points)

Your body forms most of one’s essay.
It’s the most important section of each essay you write.
Within your body, you need to argue all your main points and explain why they reply to your question.
Each main point should really be in a paragraph that is new.

Each main point must be in a different paragraph. Each paragraph must be lay out similar to this:

  • Topic Sentence: a short sentence where you repeat one main point from your own introduction.
  • Discussion: Explain why your main point is right and give reasoned explanations why.
  • Evidence: Proof that you get from a text, a quote, or a ‘fact’. It must prove that the answer is right.
  • Lead out: Finish the point that is main you are able to go directly to the next.

Exemplory instance of a Body Paragraph

Pigs are too heavy to float. (Topic Sentence)
Their large bodies and weight mean that they’re not able to float, which will be one way a creature can fly. To float a pig would need to be lighter than air. (discussion)
A pig weighs 200 kilograms, and this is why weight, it’s not lighter than air. (Evidence)
that is why, a pig is not able to float and cannot fly. (Lead out)

Conclusion of Essay Writing Structure

A conclusion is a summary that is short of you have got written in the human body paragraph.
It should ‘tie’ everything together.

As pigs are not able to float, they do have wings and cannot control aircraft, they not able to enter into the air, and fly that is therefore cannot.